Ελληνικά English
Κατηγορίες
Εταιρικά Νέα Περισσότερα


 

ΜΕΤΑΛΛΑ ΣΕ ΠΡΟΣΘΕΤΑ



“N.B. # 1: Additives must be compatible with engine oils (no increase in engine sludge/varnish deposits). Addition of ash-forming components is not allowed.”

“No intentional addition of metal-based additives.”

“Metal Content (Zn,Cu,Mn,Ca,Na and other): Non Detectable.”

“All fuels should be metal free for optimum vehicle performance.”

“Ash-forming additives can adversely affect the operation of catalysts and other components, such as oxygen sensors, in an irreversible way that increases emissions. Thus, high-quality gasoline should be used and ash-forming additives must be avoided.”

From: Worldwide Fuel Charter 4th Edition – September 2006 

"Ash-Forming (Metal-Containing) Fuel Additives

The World Wide Fuel Charter clearly states that ash-forming metal additives can leave deposits that adversely affect the operation of catalysts and other components, such as oxygen sensors, in an irreversible way that increases emissions. Therefore, high-quality gasoline should be used and ash-forming metal additives must be avoided. This is essential because today's emission control equipment use advanced catalysts and exhaust gas sensors to provide precise closed-loop fuel control. In order to maintain low emissions for the useful lifetime of a vehicle (now a legal requirement under Tier 2 emissions regulation) these must be kept in optimal condition. Metal additives containing lead, manganese, and iron are examples of ash-forming additives and that must be avoided." - From: www.cvma.ca 
 

 

Research on metals emited by motor vehicles - The Health Effects Institute

INTRODUCTION

"The presence of metals in the environment has received increasing attention in recent years. Metals comprise a complex group of elements with a broad range of toxic effects, including cancer, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, teratogenesis, and genotoxicity. Some metals are toxic at very low levels. Their accumulation in the environment is of concern because they are not biodegradable; their chemical state may change, however, and this may affect their toxicity. Metals exist in several valence states and form a vast variety of inorganic and organic compounds. Although metals may be toxic, many are essential to living systems because they participate in a variety of cellular, physiological, and structural functions. In addition, one of the leading hypotheses concerning toxicity of particulate matter involves the transition metals carried on the particles. 

Metals are used in a variety of ways in motor vehicles. In addition to their structural function and use in batteries, they are used in catalytic converters and as fuel additives to reduce certain emissions or improve engine performance, and are also found in brake pads. Although metals are added for useful purposes, such as decreasing emissions of concern (e.g. particulate matter), they have the potential of causing other changes in emissions that may increase the toxicity of other agents (such as changing the particle size distribution) or may produce toxicity on their own. Therefore, it is important to explore the effects of these metal compounds before their widespread use in fuels and in other technological developments." - From: www.healtheffects.org